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-WHAT'S BITING YOU? - THE AUSTRALIAN PARALYSIS TICK.+=====What's Biting You? - The Australian Paralysis Tick.====== 
 by Geoff McIntosh. by Geoff McIntosh.
 +
 If you discover something on your skin which is about the size of a matchhead, has eight legs kicking joyfully in the air, you have probably just acquired an adult female Paralysis Tick which has taken a liking not to your looks (as it has no eyes) but to your blood. If you discover something on your skin which is about the size of a matchhead, has eight legs kicking joyfully in the air, you have probably just acquired an adult female Paralysis Tick which has taken a liking not to your looks (as it has no eyes) but to your blood.
 +
 Ticks are a great topic of conversation with bushwalkers and rival snakes, leeches and bull-ants in this regard. Ticks are a great topic of conversation with bushwalkers and rival snakes, leeches and bull-ants in this regard.
-Nearly all cases of tick paralysis in humans are caused by the Australian Paralysis Tick (Ixodes holocyclus) and it therefore is the tick described here. This tick is also + 
-called the Dog Tick in N.S.W. and the Scrub Tick in Queensland. +Nearly all cases of tick paralysis in humans are caused by the Australian Paralysis Tick (Ixodes holocyclus) and it therefore is the tick described here. This tick is also called the Dog Tick in N.S.W. and the Scrub Tick in Queensland. 
-DISTRIBUTION.  + 
-The Australian Paralysis Tick can survive ​onlyin ​moist humid areas and hence is found along the east coast of the Australian mainland (particularly between Wollongong and Kempsey) and Tasmania. Native animals, especially bandicoots, are favourite hosts for ticks. +===Distribution.=== 
-IDENTIFICATION ​- (Refer Illustration)+  
 +The Australian Paralysis Tick can survive ​only in moist humid areas and hence is found along the east coast of the Australian mainland (particularly between Wollongong and Kempsey) and Tasmania. Native animals, especially bandicoots, are favourite hosts for ticks. 
 + 
 +===Identification ​- (Refer Illustration).=== 
 The Australian Paralysis Tick adult can be distinguished from other ticks because the first and last pairs of legs are brown, the second and third pairs are pale and the legs are spaced along the outside of a "​V"​ formed between the snout and the sides of the body. The Australian Paralysis Tick adult can be distinguished from other ticks because the first and last pairs of legs are brown, the second and third pairs are pale and the legs are spaced along the outside of a "​V"​ formed between the snout and the sides of the body.
-LIFE CYCLE - (Refer Illustration)+ 
 +===Life Cycle - (Refer Illustration).=== 
 The three stages of the life cycle are:- The three stages of the life cycle are:-
-1. Larvae ("Seed Ticks"​) - pinhead size. +  - Larvae ("Seed Ticks"​) - pinhead size. 
-2. Nymphs - matchhead size. +  ​- ​Nymphs - matchhead size. 
-3. Adult Females - matchhead to pea-size.+  ​- ​Adult Females - matchhead to pea-size. 
 The Paralysis Tick is a 3-host tick, each stage of the life cycle attaching to a new host and feeding for about a week. The fully fed larvae and numphs drop back on to the foliage and moult into the next stage. The fully gorged adult females drop to the ground and lay several thousand eggs which produce larvae to repeat the cycle. The Paralysis Tick is a 3-host tick, each stage of the life cycle attaching to a new host and feeding for about a week. The fully fed larvae and numphs drop back on to the foliage and moult into the next stage. The fully gorged adult females drop to the ground and lay several thousand eggs which produce larvae to repeat the cycle.
 +
 Adult males attach to the host and suck blood briefly, but mostly wander around in the hair of the host eating dead skin and mating with the females. Adult males attach to the host and suck blood briefly, but mostly wander around in the hair of the host eating dead skin and mating with the females.
-The adult female tick is therefore the one which causes paralysis. It crawls to the top of foliage where, with its forelegs extended, it waits for a prospective host. If a host + 
-brushes against it, the tick crawls on to the host and finds a suitable position to insert the sharp mouth parts which have barbs to anchor them in place.+The adult female tick is therefore the one which causes paralysis. It crawls to the top of foliage where, with its forelegs extended, it waits for a prospective host. If a host brushes against it, the tick crawls on to the host and finds a suitable position to insert the sharp mouth parts which have barbs to anchor them in place. 
 At the same time it injects an anti-coagulant (which contains a toxin) from its salivary glands to prevent clogging of its fine mouth parts and gut. At the same time it injects an anti-coagulant (which contains a toxin) from its salivary glands to prevent clogging of its fine mouth parts and gut.
-Paralysis is apparently due to the toxin affecting certain areas of the brain. The + 
-extremely rare deaths in humans are probably due to paralysis of the muscles of the diaphragm.+Paralysis is apparently due to the toxin affecting certain areas of the brain. The extremely rare deaths in humans are probably due to paralysis of the muscles of the diaphragm. 
 Ticks do not burrow under the skin but only insert the mouth parts. The tick may appear to be embedded deeply due to a localised reaction resulting in a swelling. Ticks do not burrow under the skin but only insert the mouth parts. The tick may appear to be embedded deeply due to a localised reaction resulting in a swelling.
-SEASONAL INCIDENCE+ 
 +===Seasonal Incidence.=== 
 Adult Paralysis Ticks occur in late winter, spring and summer, disappearing in autumn and winter. Lavae and nymphs continue the life cycle from late summer, autumn, until late winter when adults re-appear. Adult Paralysis Ticks occur in late winter, spring and summer, disappearing in autumn and winter. Lavae and nymphs continue the life cycle from late summer, autumn, until late winter when adults re-appear.
-TICK PARALYSIS+ 
 +===Tick Paralysis.=== 
 The Paralysis Tick can feed on a large range of domestic animals, '​native'​ animals and, of course, humans. Discomfort, illness and, infrequently,​ death can be caused to humans, mainly infants and children. The Paralysis Tick can feed on a large range of domestic animals, '​native'​ animals and, of course, humans. Discomfort, illness and, infrequently,​ death can be caused to humans, mainly infants and children.
 +
 Paralysis can be caused by the injection of a toxin produced in the salivary glands of the adult female tick. Lavae and nymphs also produce small quantities of toxin but may only cause paralysis when in large numbers on the host. Paralysis can be caused by the injection of a toxin produced in the salivary glands of the adult female tick. Lavae and nymphs also produce small quantities of toxin but may only cause paralysis when in large numbers on the host.
-THE SYDNEY BUSHWALKER + 
-Page 18 +===Symptoms Of Tick Paralysis.=== 
-October, 1987 + 
-AOSTRALJAKI +If the tick is removed within 24 hours, the bite may merely itch, and if scratched may become infected. 
-PA 1A LYS/5 TICK + 
-+If the tick is __not__ ​removed within 24 hours, poisoning may occur. Severe poisoning requires attachment of the tick for several days. As the effects of the toxin are cumulative, they will be accelerated in proportion to the number of ticks attached. 
-LARVAE +
-tO0A\A +
-LARVAE +
-   +
-" AMP +
-.411F6111 *OP +
-EGGS ENGORGED ADULT FEMALE +
-LIFE CYCLE  +
-+
-THE SYDNEY +
-October, 1967 BUSHWALKER Page 19 +
-SYMPTOMS OF TICK PARALYSIS.  +
-IF the tick is removed within 24 hours, the bite may merely itch, and if scratched may become infected. +
-If the tick is not removed within 24 hours, poisoning may occur. Severe poisoning requires attachment of the tick for several days. As the effects of the toxin are cumulative, they will be accelerated in proportion to the number of ticks attached.+
 Symptoms are:- Symptoms are:-
-1. Headache and malaise. + 
-2. Weakness. +  - Headache and malaise. 
-3. Blurred vision. +  ​- ​Weakness. 
-4. Loss of control of the legs. +  ​- ​Blurred vision. 
-S. Difficulty in swallowing. +  ​- ​Loss of control of the legs. 
-6. Breathing difficulties (can cause death). +  ​- ​Difficulty in swallowing. 
-TREATMENT OF TICKS+  ​- ​Breathing difficulties (can cause death). 
 + 
 +===Treatment Of Ticks.=== 
 + 
 If you detect a tick on your body, do not douse it with any irritant such as turpentine or kerosene as the tick may inject more toxin into you. If you detect a tick on your body, do not douse it with any irritant such as turpentine or kerosene as the tick may inject more toxin into you.
 +
 If you find one tick, search for others on yourself and on other members of the party. Special care should be taken to inspect the scalp and ears. If you find one tick, search for others on yourself and on other members of the party. Special care should be taken to inspect the scalp and ears.
 +
 Ticks should be removed immediately using tweezers or fingernails,​ grasping the tick as close to the skin as possible and pulling it firmly away. Ticks should be removed immediately using tweezers or fingernails,​ grasping the tick as close to the skin as possible and pulling it firmly away.
 +
 Do not squeeze or touch the tick unnecessarily as this may also cause it to inject more toxin. It does not matter if the mouth parts remain in the skin as the salivary glands come away with the body of the tick, but an antiseptic should be applied to the bite. Do not squeeze or touch the tick unnecessarily as this may also cause it to inject more toxin. It does not matter if the mouth parts remain in the skin as the salivary glands come away with the body of the tick, but an antiseptic should be applied to the bite.
 +
 If the sufferer shows any paralysis symptoms, a broad firm bandage and splint should be applied as for snake bite and medical attention sought. If the sufferer shows any paralysis symptoms, a broad firm bandage and splint should be applied as for snake bite and medical attention sought.
-IGTHER SPECIES OF TICK.  + 
-I. The Ixodes hirsti is a paralysis tick which occurs in N.S.W., Victoria and Tasmania. +===Other Species Of Tick.=== 
-2. The Tasmanian Paralysis Tick (Ixodes cornuatus) occurs in Tasmania and Victoria. + 
-3. The Bush Tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) sometimes called the Grass Tick, the Bottle Tick or the N.Z. Cattle Tick which is not a paralysis tick and occurs along the N.S.W. coast. +  - The Ixodes hirsti is a paralysis tick which occurs in N.S.W., Victoria and Tasmania. 
-4. The Cattle Tick (Boophilus microplus) which is not a paralysis tick and occurs in the north-east corner of N.S.W.+  ​- ​The Tasmanian Paralysis Tick (Ixodes cornuatus) occurs in Tasmania and Victoria. 
 +  ​- ​The Bush Tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) sometimes called the Grass Tick, the Bottle Tick or the N.Z. Cattle Tick which is not a paralysis tick and occurs along the N.S.W. coast. 
 +  ​- ​The Cattle Tick (Boophilus microplus) which is not a paralysis tick and occurs in the north-east corner of N.S.W. 
 Ticks are not insects but belong to the Class Arachnida which includes spiders, mites, centipedes, millipedes and scorpions. Ticks are not insects but belong to the Class Arachnida which includes spiders, mites, centipedes, millipedes and scorpions.
-TICKS AT COOLANA+ 
 +===Ticks At Coolana.=== 
 Ticks have been a problem at Coolana but the methods for reducing the hazard are unlikely to be adoped by bushwalkers. Ticks have been a problem at Coolana but the methods for reducing the hazard are unlikely to be adoped by bushwalkers.
 +
 The methods are:- The methods are:-
-1. Exclusion of bandicoots by trapping and removing. +  - Exclusion of bandicoots by trapping and removing. 
-2. Removal of excess vegetation. +  ​- ​Removal of excess vegetation. 
-3. Chemical spraying of vegetation. +  ​- ​Chemical spraying of vegetation. 
-4. Elimination of moist areas.+  ​- ​Elimination of moist areas. 
 This leaves us with the only alternatives:​- This leaves us with the only alternatives:​-
-1. Use of repellents. + 
-2. Regular inspection of our bodies for ticks. +  - Use of repellents. 
-REPELLENTS+  ​- ​Regular inspection of our bodies for ticks. 
 + 
 +===Repellents.=== 
 "​Rid"​ Cream Repellent (also repels leeches, flies, etc.). "​Rid"​ Cream Repellent (also repels leeches, flies, etc.).
-(For References ​- See next page) + 
-J +===References:=== 
-Page 20 THE SYDNEY BUSHWALKER October, 1987 + 
-REFERENCES: ​"​Agfacts"​ - Dept. of Agriculture,​ N.S.W. +  ​* ​"​Agfacts"​ - Dept. of Agriculture,​ N.S.W. 
-"​Window to Bushland"​ - Dr. Allen Keast. +  ​* ​"​Window to Bushland"​ - Dr. Allen Keast. 
-"A Survey of Injuries to Man by Australian Arthrepods"​ - R. V. Southcott. "Know Your Australian Spiders and Ticks" - B. Hadlington. +  ​* ​"A Survey of Injuries to Man by Australian Arthrepods"​ - R. V. Southcott. 
-"​Holiday Safety"​ - Dept. of Health, N.S.W. +  * "Know Your Australian Spiders and Ticks" - B. Hadlington. 
-"First Aid Hints" - Division of Health EducationAc Information,​ Queensland. +  ​* ​"​Holiday Safety"​ - Dept. of Health, N.S.W. 
-#​.***#####​*######​ +  ​* ​"First Aid Hints" - Division of Health EducationAc Information,​ Queensland. 
-HALF-YEARLYGENERAL MEETINGISEPTEMBER ​1987. + 
-NOTES.+---- 
 + 
 +=====Half-Yearly General Meeting - September ​1987. Notes.===== 
 by Ainslie Morris. by Ainslie Morris.
 +
 At 8.10 pm the meeting opened with a number of apologies and 35 people in attendance. The Minutes of the August General Meeting were read and adopted. At 8.10 pm the meeting opened with a number of apologies and 35 people in attendance. The Minutes of the August General Meeting were read and adopted.
 +
 Madeleine Graf and John O'Shea were welcomed as new members, and the goodies were held over for two other new members not present. Madeleine Graf and John O'Shea were welcomed as new members, and the goodies were held over for two other new members not present.
 +
 Correspondence included letters about Gordon Smith'​s Pass and Gentle'​s Pass being placed on the next edition of the C.M.A. Kanangra map. (Both were early S.B.W. explorers.) Other letters were received, including one from Pageboy Publications with an account for layout of the historical book of $1,600, one from Stan Madden recommending 500 copies be printed and sold at $10 per copy. Correspondence included letters about Gordon Smith'​s Pass and Gentle'​s Pass being placed on the next edition of the C.M.A. Kanangra map. (Both were early S.B.W. explorers.) Other letters were received, including one from Pageboy Publications with an account for layout of the historical book of $1,600, one from Stan Madden recommending 500 copies be printed and sold at $10 per copy.
 +
 The President reported on the Committee'​s decisions regarding the historical book. Motions were then brought forward that the price of the book be $8, number of copies be 500, paper used be 80 g.s.m. and 110 g.s.m. for the photographs,​ and the layout costs be held at $2,500. The motions were then put that the price of the book be determined by the 60th Anniversary Sub-committee,​ that 500 copies be printed, that 110 g.s.m. paper be used for the photographs,​ and the typesetter be paid the full account submitted; all were passed. The President reported on the Committee'​s decisions regarding the historical book. Motions were then brought forward that the price of the book be $8, number of copies be 500, paper used be 80 g.s.m. and 110 g.s.m. for the photographs,​ and the layout costs be held at $2,500. The motions were then put that the price of the book be determined by the 60th Anniversary Sub-committee,​ that 500 copies be printed, that 110 g.s.m. paper be used for the photographs,​ and the typesetter be paid the full account submitted; all were passed.
 +
 The Club has agreed to remain at the Ella Community Centre at an increased rental of $40 per meeting and $25 per annum membership, and to stop eating other groups'​ bikkies. We are writing an apology and a request that other users of the hall label their refreshments. The Club has agreed to remain at the Ella Community Centre at an increased rental of $40 per meeting and $25 per annum membership, and to stop eating other groups'​ bikkies. We are writing an apology and a request that other users of the hall label their refreshments.
 +
 The Treasurer reported that the total cash at the Bank stands at $7,988.31, and the 60th Anniversary Fund had an excess over income of $2,276.65. The Treasurer reported that the total cash at the Bank stands at $7,988.31, and the 60th Anniversary Fund had an excess over income of $2,276.65.
--+
 The Conservation Secretary reported that Mr. Bob Carr, Minister for Environment and Planning, is going to introduce a Wilderness Act. The Conservation Secretary reported that Mr. Bob Carr, Minister for Environment and Planning, is going to introduce a Wilderness Act.
 +
 As the hour was now quite late (9.50 pm) the normal Walks Reports were not presented. As the hour was now quite late (9.50 pm) the normal Walks Reports were not presented.
 +
 It was agreed that another 100 T-shirts sizes 8, 10 and 12 be purchased for $500. It was agreed that another 100 T-shirts sizes 8, 10 and 12 be purchased for $500.
 +
 The- Provident Fund proposal was rejected. A new Personal Accident Insurance policy for $5 per head (about $2,500) for one year was not taken out. Comments were to the effect that the Club had managed for 58 years without such a policy and people who needed it could have their own policies for loss of wages etc. As a consequence it was moved that the Prospectives'​ membership subscriptions be reviewed by the Committee. The- Provident Fund proposal was rejected. A new Personal Accident Insurance policy for $5 per head (about $2,500) for one year was not taken out. Comments were to the effect that the Club had managed for 58 years without such a policy and people who needed it could have their own policies for loss of wages etc. As a consequence it was moved that the Prospectives'​ membership subscriptions be reviewed by the Committee.
 +
 The 1988 Reunion will be held at "​Coolana"​ and convened by Spiro Hajinakitas. The 1988 Reunion will be held at "​Coolana"​ and convened by Spiro Hajinakitas.
 +
 The meeting (or what was left of it after this marathon talkfest) was closed at 10.35 pm. The meeting (or what was left of it after this marathon talkfest) was closed at 10.35 pm.
-* * * * * * * * * * 
-WALKS NOTICE. 
-DAVID ROSTRON'​s Family Walk to the Cox's River is postponed until 14/15 November, 1987. 
-JOE MARTON'​s Sunday walk on 22nd November to WEntworth Falls - Country train 8.12 am from CEntral. 
  
 +----
 +
 +====Walks Notice.====
 +
 +David Rostron'​s Family Walk to the Cox's River is postponed until 14/15 November, 1987.
 +
 +Joe Marton'​s Sunday walk on 22nd November to Wentworth Falls - Country train 8.12 am from Central.
 +
 +----
198710.txt · Last modified: 2016/09/21 02:10 by tyreless