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 =====The Sydney Bushwalker.===== =====The Sydney Bushwalker.=====
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 A monthly bulletin of matters of interest to The Sydney Bush Walkers, Box 4476 G.P.O., Sydney, 2001. Club meetings are held every Wednesday evening from 7.30 pm at the Wireless Institute Building, 14 Atchison Street, St. Leonards. Enquiries concerning the Club should be referred to Ann Ravn, Telephone 798-8607. A monthly bulletin of matters of interest to The Sydney Bush Walkers, Box 4476 G.P.O., Sydney, 2001. Club meetings are held every Wednesday evening from 7.30 pm at the Wireless Institute Building, 14 Atchison Street, St. Leonards. Enquiries concerning the Club should be referred to Ann Ravn, Telephone 798-8607.
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 __A. Visitor Numbers.__ __A. Visitor Numbers.__
  
-1. How many winter visitors will be using hte Park in future years?+1. How many winter visitors will be using the Park in future years?
  
 It depends who you ask. There are a range of estimates for the next decade: It depends who you ask. There are a range of estimates for the next decade:
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 |Estimate Basis|Increase pa.|1980|1985|1990| |Estimate Basis|Increase pa.|1980|1985|1990|
-|Aust.Ski Federation (high)|22%|24,​000|65,​000|175,​000|+|Aust. Ski Federation (high)|22%|24,​000|65,​000|175,​000|
 |N.S.W. Ski Association|l8%|24,​000|55,​000|126,​000| |N.S.W. Ski Association|l8%|24,​000|55,​000|126,​000|
 |Aust. Ski Federation (low)|15%|24,​000|48,​000|97,​000| |Aust. Ski Federation (low)|15%|24,​000|48,​000|97,​000|
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 |N.P.W.S./​Dept.of Tourism|6%|1,​010,​000|1,​352,​000|1,​809,​000| |N.P.W.S./​Dept.of Tourism|6%|1,​010,​000|1,​352,​000|1,​809,​000|
  
-*Planning and Environemnt ​Commission+*Planning and Environment ​Commission
  
 2. How many of the visitors are alpine skiers? 2. How many of the visitors are alpine skiers?
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 The actual activity of snow skiing has little impact. Nevertheless,​ there are considerable environmental effects associated with skiing. Extensive summer slope grooming is often required, with the removal of rocks and vegetation. The construction and maintenance of lifts, access tracks and public facilities all affect the environment. The provision of services also has considerable impact on the Park, not only in resorts but also over a wider area. The actual activity of snow skiing has little impact. Nevertheless,​ there are considerable environmental effects associated with skiing. Extensive summer slope grooming is often required, with the removal of rocks and vegetation. The construction and maintenance of lifts, access tracks and public facilities all affect the environment. The provision of services also has considerable impact on the Park, not only in resorts but also over a wider area.
  
-5. Is it not the case that expansion ​ofhte resorts will have no deleterious impact on teh Park because the environments of the resorts have already been substantially altered by existing development?​+5. Is it not the case that expansion ​of the resorts will have no deleterious impact on the Park because the environments of the resorts have already been substantially altered by existing development?​
  
 The presence of the existing resorts does not provide a justification for intensive urbanisation of the snowfields. Whilst there are problems within existing resort areas, particularly with regard of water supply and sewerage, these should be investigated and solved rather than made worse. There are many valuable environments,​ such as sphagnum bogs, needing protection within the skiing resorts. The presence of the existing resorts does not provide a justification for intensive urbanisation of the snowfields. Whilst there are problems within existing resort areas, particularly with regard of water supply and sewerage, these should be investigated and solved rather than made worse. There are many valuable environments,​ such as sphagnum bogs, needing protection within the skiing resorts.
  
-6. Heavily used skiing areas in Europe and the U.S.A. remain beautiful and unharmed, so how can skiing do any significant harm to the environment ​inthe Park?+6. Heavily used skiing areas in Europe and the U.S.A. remain beautiful and unharmed, so how can skiing do any significant harm to the environment ​in the Park?
  
 Comparisons between the skiing areas of Kosciusko National Park and overseas should be made with a great deal of caution. The skiing areas of the northern hemisphere are in temperate high latitude areas receiving extensive snow falls. By comparison, the Kosciusko resorts are in the same latitude as the African side of the Mediterranean Sea! In addition, ski field developments in Australia are all at or above the tree line, and in ecological terms are effectively far higher in the mountains than most of their overseas counterparts. There are very few examples overseas of ski resorts which are developed in environments as restricted in their continental distribution or as fragile as the alpine area of Kosciusko National Park. The international importance of the Park was officially acknowledged in January 1977, when it was designated a Biosphere Reserve under UNESCO'​s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme. Comparisons between the skiing areas of Kosciusko National Park and overseas should be made with a great deal of caution. The skiing areas of the northern hemisphere are in temperate high latitude areas receiving extensive snow falls. By comparison, the Kosciusko resorts are in the same latitude as the African side of the Mediterranean Sea! In addition, ski field developments in Australia are all at or above the tree line, and in ecological terms are effectively far higher in the mountains than most of their overseas counterparts. There are very few examples overseas of ski resorts which are developed in environments as restricted in their continental distribution or as fragile as the alpine area of Kosciusko National Park. The international importance of the Park was officially acknowledged in January 1977, when it was designated a Biosphere Reserve under UNESCO'​s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme.
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 __C. Accommodation.__ __C. Accommodation.__
  
-7. Whyhas ​the need to restrict accommodation suddenly appeared as an issue?+7. Why has the need to restrict accommodation suddenly appeared as an issue?
  
 The 1974 Plan of Management recognised that future major development of tourist overnight facilities, especially of the hotel/​motel/​lodge type, should be encouraged outside the Park, relieving the very problems now experienced with sewerage disposal and water supply. This principle, adopted after public input and discussion, forms the basis for the accommodation proposals outlined to date in the review of the Plan. The 1974 Plan of Management recognised that future major development of tourist overnight facilities, especially of the hotel/​motel/​lodge type, should be encouraged outside the Park, relieving the very problems now experienced with sewerage disposal and water supply. This principle, adopted after public input and discussion, forms the basis for the accommodation proposals outlined to date in the review of the Plan.
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 __D. Access.__ __D. Access.__
  
-11. Won't the daily road journey to and from the resorts be both lengthened by inevitable delays and dangerous in bad weather if limits are put on the amount of accommodaiton ​within the park?+11. Won't the daily road journey to and from the resorts be both lengthened by inevitable delays and dangerous in bad weather if limits are put on the amount of accommodation ​within the park?
  
 Accommodation within the Park won't eliminate these problems. The Australian Ski Federation'​s conservative projections indicated that at the end of this decade there will be 97,000 visitors in the Park on a peak day. (See A.1.). If this number of users could fit on the ski slopes (see 12), even a doubling of existing accommodation would result in only a 6% reduction in the traffic on the access roads. The sometimes long, sometimes dangerous journey would remain a problem to be tackled by other means. Hence, research is continuing into the safety aspects of winter access. Accommodation within the Park won't eliminate these problems. The Australian Ski Federation'​s conservative projections indicated that at the end of this decade there will be 97,000 visitors in the Park on a peak day. (See A.1.). If this number of users could fit on the ski slopes (see 12), even a doubling of existing accommodation would result in only a 6% reduction in the traffic on the access roads. The sometimes long, sometimes dangerous journey would remain a problem to be tackled by other means. Hence, research is continuing into the safety aspects of winter access.
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 Holding the number of visitors entering the Park in private cars at present levels, and meeting demand with new accommodation within the Park, would result in an increase in beds from a little over 6,000 to well over 50,000 within the next 10 years. Fifty thousand beds represent about five towns with the population of Cooma, or two towns the size of Queanbeyan or Goulburn within the snowfields of Kosciusko National Park! Holding the number of visitors entering the Park in private cars at present levels, and meeting demand with new accommodation within the Park, would result in an increase in beds from a little over 6,000 to well over 50,000 within the next 10 years. Fifty thousand beds represent about five towns with the population of Cooma, or two towns the size of Queanbeyan or Goulburn within the snowfields of Kosciusko National Park!
  
-12. Wouldn'​t a mass transit (bus) system be uneconimical ​and unreliable?+12. Wouldn'​t a mass transit (bus) system be uneconmical ​and unreliable?
  
 There may be no practical alternative to a mass transit system. The capacity of Kosciusko Road (to Perisher, Smiggins and Guthega) and the Alpine Rd (to Thredbo) in fine weather is about 6,000 cars or 19,000 people over the three hour morning "​rush"​. This is based on the capacities of 1,000 cars per lane per hour, with each car carrying an average of 3.15 persons. There may be no practical alternative to a mass transit system. The capacity of Kosciusko Road (to Perisher, Smiggins and Guthega) and the Alpine Rd (to Thredbo) in fine weather is about 6,000 cars or 19,000 people over the three hour morning "​rush"​. This is based on the capacities of 1,000 cars per lane per hour, with each car carrying an average of 3.15 persons.
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 | |Perisher/​Smiggins|14,​500| | |Perisher/​Smiggins|14,​500|
 | |Guthega|650| | |Guthega|650|
-| |Charlotte Pass|__800__|+| |Charlotte Pass|800|
 | | |__23,​450__| | | |__23,​450__|
 |b. __Infill of Existing Areas__|Thredbo|2,​500| |b. __Infill of Existing Areas__|Thredbo|2,​500|
 | |Perisher/​Smiggins|3,​000| | |Perisher/​Smiggins|3,​000|
 | |Guthega|550| | |Guthega|550|
-| |Charlotte Pass|__150__|+| |Charlotte Pass|150|
 | | |__6,200__| | | |__6,200__|
 |c. __Possible New Areas__|Bogong Creek (2)|6,500| |c. __Possible New Areas__|Bogong Creek (2)|6,500|
 | |Twin Valleys (3)|4,500| | |Twin Valleys (3)|4,500|
-| |Blue Cow|__3,700__|+| |Blue Cow|3,700|
 | | |__14,​700__| | | |__14,​700__|
 | | Total|__44,​350__| | | Total|__44,​350__|
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 (1) approx. 70% of these visitors are alpine skiers. ​ (1) approx. 70% of these visitors are alpine skiers. ​
 +
 (2) Dead Horse Gap side of Thredbo Village skiing area. (2) Dead Horse Gap side of Thredbo Village skiing area.
 +
 (3) This is one of several possible sites for a development on the Ramshead Range. (3) This is one of several possible sites for a development on the Ramshead Range.
  
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 16. How does the law of the State of N.S.W. affect planning for resort developments within Kosciusko National Park? 16. How does the law of the State of N.S.W. affect planning for resort developments within Kosciusko National Park?
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 The __main__ legal requirements are contained in the __National Parks and Wildlife Act__ 1974, __Clean Waters Act__ 1970 and the __Environmental Planning and Assessment Act__ 1979.    The __main__ legal requirements are contained in the __National Parks and Wildlife Act__ 1974, __Clean Waters Act__ 1970 and the __Environmental Planning and Assessment Act__ 1979.  
  
 (1) __N.S.W. National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974__. (1) __N.S.W. National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974__.
- +a) Section 81(4) requiresthat any developments proposed for a park have to be in accordance with its plan of management.
-(a) Section 81(4) requiresthat any developments proposed for a park have to be in accordance with its plan of management.+
  
 (b) Section 72(4) requires that in the preparation of a plan of management the following Objectives will have to be taken into account: (b) Section 72(4) requires that in the preparation of a plan of management the following Objectives will have to be taken into account:
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 (b) Licensing. When issuing a license for a sewerage works the State Pollution Control Commission must take into account the possible extent of the pollution of any waters and the classification of these waters (Section 20(6)). (b) Licensing. When issuing a license for a sewerage works the State Pollution Control Commission must take into account the possible extent of the pollution of any waters and the classification of these waters (Section 20(6)).
  
-(c) Discharge into Classified Waters. Nutrients are not to be discharged from the resorts if they cause excessive plant growth in the water of the receiving streams. Unless otherwise determined, there has to be a dilution of 19 parts of fresh water to 1 part effluent.+( c ) Discharge into Classified Waters. Nutrients are not to be discharged from the resorts if they cause excessive plant growth in the water of the receiving streams. Unless otherwise determined, there has to be a dilution of 19 parts of fresh water to 1 part effluent.
  
 (3) __Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979__. (3) __Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979__.
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 17. Why do sewerage effluent problems cause so much concern and comment? 17. Why do sewerage effluent problems cause so much concern and comment?
   
-The basic problem is that the ski resorts, unlike their overseas counterparts,​ are located relatively high within water catchments (see 6). Perisher Valley, for example, has to provide sufficient water for water supply, including fire fighting, and operation of a sewerage works from a catchment of less than 1,000 ha. the situation is worse at Charlotte Pass and Smiggin Holes and somewhat better at Thredbo (cecause ​it is served by a larger catchment).+The basic problem is that the ski resorts, unlike their overseas counterparts,​ are located relatively high within water catchments (see 6). Perisher Valley, for example, has to provide sufficient water for water supply, including fire fighting, and operation of a sewerage works from a catchment of less than 1,000 ha. the situation is worse at Charlotte Pass and Smiggin Holes and somewhat better at Thredbo (because ​it is served by a larger catchment).
  
-Strict standards for treated ​effluend ​are required for the category of Classified Waters proposed for the resort areas (see 16(2)). It appears that the 19:1 dilution requirement cannot be met even for existing developments at Perisher Valley, Smiggin Holes and Charlotte Pass. The position at Thredbo is marginal. The State Pollution Control ​Commmission ​is studying the problem with a view to amending sewerage plant licenses or imposing new standards to ensure classification requirements are met.+Strict standards for treated ​effluent ​are required for the category of Classified Waters proposed for the resort areas (see 16(2)). It appears that the 19:1 dilution requirement cannot be met even for existing developments at Perisher Valley, Smiggin Holes and Charlotte Pass. The position at Thredbo is marginal. The State Pollution Control ​Commission ​is studying the problem with a view to amending sewerage plant licenses or imposing new standards to ensure classification requirements are met.
  
 18. What effect do water supply problems have on planning new areas? 18. What effect do water supply problems have on planning new areas?
  
-None of the existing resort areas has an adequate water storage and supply capacity. The resorts high in water catchments will require considerable investigation and expenditure of funds on water supply and storage to bring storage capacity supply up to acceptable municipal standards. The answers may not be easily found, and beg questions of the scale of technological interventions appropriate for a national park and international biosphere reserve. The Problem is not so critical at Guthea ​or Thredbo.+None of the existing resort areas has an adequate water storage and supply capacity. The resorts high in water catchments will require considerable investigation and expenditure of funds on water supply and storage to bring storage capacity supply up to acceptable municipal standards. The answers may not be easily found, and beg questions of the scale of technological interventions appropriate for a national park and international biosphere reserve. The Problem is not so critical at Guthega ​or Thredbo.
  
 19. If water is a constraint, how does this affect planning options? 19. If water is a constraint, how does this affect planning options?
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 =====Walks Programme: Amendment.===== =====Walks Programme: Amendment.=====
- 
  
 __Sunday, 22nd February, 1981.__ __Sunday, 22nd February, 1981.__
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 by Anon. [Dot Butler] by Anon. [Dot Butler]
  
-It was revealed today that an important new coal deposit has been found in Kangaroo Valley. A spokesperson for the owners of the land on which it wad discovered, The Sydney Belly Worshippers,​ said she did not wish to be named nor did she want the location to be made known as the Club was not yet known to have bought the land as the Committee was still considering the matter. (The Club does in fact own the land though only a select few members know of it. "The others will come round in time." said the spokesperson.) +It was revealed today that an important new coal deposit has been found in Kangaroo Valley. A spokesperson for the owners of the land on which it wad discovered, The Sydney Belly Worshippers,​ said she did not wish to be named nor did she want the location to be made known as the Club was not yet known to have bought the land as the Committee was still considering the matter. (The Club __does__ ​in fact own the land though only a select few members know of it. "The others will come round in time." said the spokesperson.)
  
 The purchase was considered a bargain when it was made and is said to be somewhere between the Kangaroo River and the Mt. Scanzi Road. The purchase was considered a bargain when it was made and is said to be somewhere between the Kangaroo River and the Mt. Scanzi Road.
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 "Once the Committee decides to buy the land a new decent hut will be built on it," the spokesperson said. "They will be most gratified to know that they have built in coal." The site is some distance from popular walking areas and public transport, but this was not seen as a problem. "Once they realise what a boon a property with coal on it is," said the spokesperson,​ "that will outweigh other emotional arguments."​ "Once the Committee decides to buy the land a new decent hut will be built on it," the spokesperson said. "They will be most gratified to know that they have built in coal." The site is some distance from popular walking areas and public transport, but this was not seen as a problem. "Once they realise what a boon a property with coal on it is," said the spokesperson,​ "that will outweigh other emotional arguments."​
  
-The spokesperson pointed out that the design of the new hut will be altered by the existence of coal on the property. "It will be steam-heated from the 50 megawatt boiler we will install,"​ he/she said. "Steam showers and a steam winch trolley to Kangaroo Valley township will be a feature. We will be cooking with steam and a steam-powered generator will provide electricity to power the complex. At off-peak times we will sell power to the national grid. Steam heated toilets will be a feature of the place as some of the older members have piles from years of sitting on the cold slates of the old hut. A sauna for those members who have had a hard day at the Kangaroo Valley pub will be installed. ​ We also hope to export coal and thus diversify our interests from the narrow ones of packaged bushwalking tours and cheap overseas holidays,"​ the spokesperson said. "I am sure that members will not object to the grey tinge over everything:" was his/her final comment.+The spokesperson pointed out that the design of the new hut will be altered by the existence of coal on the property. "It will be steam-heated from the 50 megawatt boiler we will install,"​ he/she said. "Steam showers and a steam winch trolley to Kangaroo Valley township will be a feature. We will be cooking with steam and a steam-powered generator will provide electricity to power the complex. At off-peak times we will sell power to the national grid. Steam heated toilets will be a feature of the place as some of the older members have piles from years of sitting on the cold slates of the old hut. A sauna for those members who have had a hard day at the Kangaroo Valley pub will be installed. We also hope to export coal and thus diversify our interests from the narrow ones of packaged bushwalking tours and cheap overseas holidays,"​ the spokesperson said. "I am sure that members will not object to the grey tinge over everything!" was his/her final comment.
  
 +----
 +
 +__New phone number__ - Check Walks Programme!
  
-NEW PHONE NUMBER - Check Walks Programme 
 Len Newland may now be contacted on Tel. 232,1252 (B). Len Newland may now be contacted on Tel. 232,1252 (B).
  
- +======The Flowers of Srinagar Part IV.======
-====== The Flowers of Srinagar Part IV. ======+
  
 by Bill Gillam. by Bill Gillam.
  
-Depth of field of a lens is a direct variable of the size of the lens opening - it will vary in the way marked on the lens barrel not whether it was made in Germany or Japan. All modern compound lenses are computer designed for glass characteristics and curvature of each element and coated by similarly sophisticated technology to stop stray reflected light and preserve natural colour balance. Usedrealistically modern lenses all approach the limits of optics. Significantly "model changes"​ are in the direction of motorising what was done by hand photography as consumption not as creation+Depth of field of a lens is a direct variable of the size of the lens opening - it will vary in the way marked on the lens barrel not whether it was made in Germany or Japan. All modern compound lenses are computer designed for glass characteristics and curvature of each element and coated by similarly sophisticated technology to stop stray reflected light and preserve natural colour balance. Used realistically modern lenses all approach the limits of __optics__. Significantly "model changes"​ are in the direction of motorising what was done by hand photography as consumption not as creation.
-A 50 mm lens is normally supplied with the camera as the standard lens. It covers an angle of view roughly equivalent to normal forward vision. It is a generally useful bland compromise giving restricted visual effects. It will focus to 0.5 metres at which distance a page of this magazine just fills the frame. Far too big for wild flower studies. Pointed at a landscape all but the most prominent features flatten out leaving the centre of interest framed with a devastatingly blue sky occupying 20% of the frame. These limitations are, I think responsible for most of our disappointments in photography. Photographic lore has come to us through camera clubs still obsessed with the darkroom techniques of black +
-and white, of enlarging, cropping and re-touching,​ insisting on publishing numbers and exposure times with Brand X's ultra fine grain film developed with Brand. Y's nano-grain developer. The practice of photography has not kept pace with the possibilities offered by freely available interchangeable +
-lenses and high speed colour film. Contemporary photographic criticisms and exhibition (as a parallel to ART exhibition and criticism) is restricted to "​flawless technique"​ that produces "​infinite tone gradation"​ of greys. One might applaud. Manet because his Olympia would reproduce well, and not look out of place, in the "Daily Mirror"​.+
  
-Interchangeable lenses offer a way of creative seeingBy a second-hand ​camera, two additional lenses and a close-up set one can develop ​an infinite range of vision. ​Second-hand cameras with built-in light meter sell for around $100 zoom lens a bit more, a 28 mmlens a bit less, and close-up sets next to nothingAdd later teleconverter ​for $30About $300 its still not much more than 50% of a basic new camera and restrictive standard lensAny camera ​is just a black box it is the lens that shows you the world. The added weight ​of all the lenses is around one kilogram.+A 50 m.m. lens is normally supplied with the camera ​as the standard lens. It covers ​an angle of view roughly equivalent to normal forward ​vision. ​It is generally useful bland compromise giving restricted visual effectsIt will focus to 0.5 metres at which distance ​page of this magazine just fills the frame. Far too big for wild flower studiesPointed at a landscape all but the most prominent features flatten out leaving the centre ​of interest framed with devastatingly blue sky occupying 20% of the frameThese limitations are, I think, responsible for most of our disappointments in photography. Photographic lore has come to us through ​camera ​clubs still obsessed with the darkroom techniques of black and white, of enlarging, cropping and re-touching, insisting on publishing numbers and exposure times with Brand X's ultra fine grain film developed with Brand Y's nano-grain developer. The practice ​of photography has not kept pace with the possibilities offered by freely available interchangeable ​lenses ​and high speed colour film. Contemporary photographic criticisms and exhibition (as a parallel to ART exhibition and criticism) ​is restricted to "​flawless technique"​ that produces "​infinite tone gradation"​ of greys. One might applaud Manet because his Olympia would reproduce well, and not look out of place, in the "Daily Mirror"​.
  
-Leave the tent at home and sleep under a log if it rains.+Interchangeable lenses offer a way of creative seeing. By buying a second-hand camera, two additional lenses and a close-up set one can develop an infinite range of vision. Second-hand cameras with built-in light meter sell for around $100, a zoom lens a bit more, a 28 m.m. lens a bit less, and close-up sets next to nothing. Add later a teleconverter for $30. About $300 its still not much more than 50% of a basic new camera and restrictive standard lens. Any camera is just a black box - it is the lens that shows you the world. The added weight of all the lenses is around one kilogram. ​Leave the tent at home and sleep under a log if it rains.
  
-What do these lenses do. First the zoom. Regarded as an aid to focussing and composing rather than "​bringing things close" the zoom is superb. Long before the extreme focal length is reached the most important elements of a scene can be isolated, the intrusion of the sky aimirished ​and the "​design"​ emphasised. Once operated the versatility of the zoom is indispensable. A short focal length lens, 28 mm is ideal, gives an incredible depth of field - at f 16 with object at 1.5 metres to infinity - the major +What do these lenses do. First the zoom. Regarded as an aid to focussing and composing rather than "​bringing things close" the zoom is superb. Long before the extreme focal length is reached the most important elements of a scene can be isolated, the intrusion of the sky diminished ​and the "​design"​ emphasised. Once operated the versatility of the zoom is indispensable. A short focal length lens, 28 mm is ideal, gives an incredible depth of field - at f 16 with object at 1.5 metres to infinity - the major penalty is that the ultimate image encompasses more than any eye could ever see in such detail. Good slides from a 28 mm are astonishingly successful.
-penalty is that the ultimate image encompasses more than any eye could ever see in such detail. Good slides from a 28 mm are astonishingly successful.+
  
-Close-up sets screw onto the front of a lens, with stepping rings onto any lens - the main lens is set to infinity and the whole system moved in 4nd out to achieve focus.The lenses in a set, usually three, are additiie; they can be screwed onto each other until the image is of acceptable size +Close-up sets screw onto the front of a lens, with stepping rings onto any lens - the main lens is set to infinity and the whole system moved in and out to achieve focus. The lenses in a set, usually three, are additive; they can be screwed onto each other until the image is of acceptable size in the frame. They have two major short comings - the depth of field is extremely shallow, from 2 to 10 mm depending on the number of lenses used, so that focussing, moving the camera in and out, is only half this magnitude, 1 to 5 mm to gain clear focus. Add these limitations to that of delicate flowers nodding on slender stems. Brilliance of the slide is increased ​since the light rays have travelled through less atmosphere and the pervasive blueness of distance is not a factor.
-in the frame. They have two major short comings - the depth of field is extremely shallow, from 2 to 10 mm depending on the number of -lenses used, +
-So that focussing, moving the camera in and out, is only half this magnitude, 1 to 5 mm to gain clear focus. Add these limitations to that of delicate+
-flowers nodding on slender stems. Brilliance of the slide is increased ​Since the light rays have travelled through less atmosphere and the pervasive blueness of distance is not a factor+
-Compared to the chemistry of colour film the physics of lenses are simple. All brands of colour film are three sensitive layers of emulsion on a backing. Each layer is sensitive to one colour alone - magenta, cyan and green/blue. Green/blue is generally the least successfully formulated and in addition has the most variable sensitivity to our eyes. Fresh colour film of different brands, even if all daylight type, will have inherently different response to these colours, a deliberate-choice of the manufacturer. Kodachrame seems to have saturated blues at the expense of magenta, Agfa gives de-saturated reds and browns and its blue is unpredictable. Ektachrome gives good saturation across the spectrum; specifically Ektachrome "​blacks"​ are luminous and give luminosity to all adjacent colours. Vith ageing before use all films lose saturation - saturation being the pure colour modified, in painting, by white pigment. +
-All these variations in aim behaviour are beyond our control at the moment of making an exposure. Experiment with all the brands is needed to find one which suits your own visual perception. Or you can use colour filters - but that is beyond this introduction. Colour printing, in -which the use of filters is obligatory, can alter the colour balance dramatically. Picture books, the medium in which we see most work by "​established"​ photographers,​ has undergone such further refinement so that assessment of our own slides and our own aspirations should not be made by comparison. .+
  
 +Compared to the chemistry of colour film the physics of lenses are simple. All brands of colour film are three sensitive layers of emulsion on a backing. Each layer is sensitive to one colour alone - magenta, cyan and green/blue. Green/blue is generally the least successfully formulated and in addition has the most variable sensitivity to our eyes. Fresh colour film of different brands, even if all daylight type, will have inherently different response to these colours, a deliberate-choice of the manufacturer. Kodachrame seems to have saturated blues at the expense of magenta, Agfa gives de-saturated reds and browns and its blue is unpredictable. Ektachrome gives good saturation across the spectrum; specifically Ektachrome "​blacks"​ are luminous and give luminosity to all adjacent colours. With ageing before use all films lose saturation - saturation being the pure colour modified, in painting, by white pigment.
  
 +All these variations in film behaviour are beyond our control at the moment of making an exposure. Experiment with all the brands is needed to find one which suits your own visual perception. Or you can use colour filters - but that is beyond this introduction. Colour printing, in which the use of filters is obligatory, can alter the colour balance dramatically. Picture books, the medium in which we see most work by "​established"​ photographers,​ has undergone such further refinement so that assessment of our own slides and our own aspirations should not be made by comparison.
 +
 +----
 +
 +====Sleeping Bag Covers.====
 +
 +__Coolana Fund.__
  
-**SLEEPING BAG COVERS**\\ 
-COOLANA FUND 
 If you wish to have a cover for your new "​Fazeley"​ sleeping bag, ring Helen Gray 86 6263 after hours. If you wish to have a cover for your new "​Fazeley"​ sleeping bag, ring Helen Gray 86 6263 after hours.
 +
 The covers are normal size, in standard light weight nylon. Cost $2.25. All proceeds go towards Coolana'​s rates. The covers are normal size, in standard light weight nylon. Cost $2.25. All proceeds go towards Coolana'​s rates.
  
-====== Social Notes for February ======+======Social Notes for February.======
    
 by Peter Miller by Peter Miller
  
-February 18: OUTWARD BOUND FILM\\ +====Wednesday, ​February 18:==== 
-The film covers the activities of the Outward Bound movement. Groups are shown participating in rock climbing, bushwalking,​ caving, canoeing and map reading. Duration 55 minutes. ​DINNER ​will be held before the film at the Nam Roc Chinese Restaurant, 538 Pacific Highway, St. Leonards - 7.00 to 8.00 pm.+ 
 +__Outwrd Bound film__. 
 + 
 +The film covers the activities of the Outward Bound movement. Groups are shown participating in rock climbing, bushwalking,​ caving, canoeing and map reading. Duration 55 minutes. 
 + 
 +DinnerR ​will be held before the film at the Nam Roc Chinese Restaurant, 538 Pacific Highway, St. Leonards - 7.00 to 8.00 pm
 + 
 +====Wednesday,​ February 25:==== 
 + 
 +__Kosciusko Huts Association film__.
  
-Wednesday, February 25: KOSCIUSKO HUTS ASSOCIATION FILM.\\ 
 The film is about the work of the Kosciusko Huts Association and their efforts to preserve the huts which we use in the Snowy area. The film is about the work of the Kosciusko Huts Association and their efforts to preserve the huts which we use in the Snowy area.
  
-Visit the SYDNEY OBSERVATORY ​at Millers Point. Date - Tuesday, 3rd. March.\\ +---- 
-Time - 7.30 pm. Book NOW with Peter Miller, Tel. 95,2689 as there is a limit of thirty people, children welcome.+ 
 +Visit the Sydney Observatory ​at Millers Point. Date - Tuesday, 3rd. March. Time - 7.30 pm. Book NOW with Peter Miller, Tel. 95,2689 as there is a limit of thirty people, children welcome. 
 + 
 +----
  
 +Next month....
  
-NEXT MONTH ...... 
 Report on the Kangaroo Valley Bush Fire and the effect on Coolana. Report on the Kangaroo Valley Bush Fire and the effect on Coolana.
198101.txt · Last modified: 2016/03/18 04:47 by tyreless