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SYDNEY BUSI-1114ALIER A monthly BuliQtin devotA to mattars of intrestto The Sydney Bushwalker, 5 Hamilton Streat -Sydney. No,114 JULY, 1942 Editor C. Kinsella Production: Yvonne _Pclic Azsi8iant: Assistant Alice Wfrovn Bus Yz inager -J.',Ichnson Subs & Sales: B. D227,kcILF- CONTENTS Index Blaok Clouds and Silver Linings Our Own Meeting The Last of the Bush Walkers The Kosciusko State Park …. Snapshots at Era 04f -Seen and. Heard II* Information onFruit Drying. 1 Ubi 2 CO* 4 Ray Bean 5 Silvanius 6 Les Harpur 9 ,a. 10 F. Leyden 11 S-,Dain, which had a topography similar to Australia, had never reached its proper agricultural development, Mr. Clayton said, bec,use wrnings of soil erosion had been ignored. To-day anyone could despoil thL,:- country, cut its trees, fire its countryside; and waste its precious. streams. It was necessary for Australians to develop a consciousness of the land itself. Too many people believed that so long as trams ran and the Stock Exchange existed all was S.M.H. 21-4-44. (Mr. E.S.Clayton, Director of the Soil Conservation Service, speaking to the C.W.Ac). BLACK:CLOUDS AND SILVER LININGS by “'Thin. How can T possibly describe the bladk outlook when I arrived in Queensland? There aTTeared to be walking in plenty but - In the first p-ace, there lee -e abeclete:y no walkers. The only equivalent of the walking fraternity the Nete;otai nerke. Aseoeiation - was as dead as the proverbial door nail and elost enhal-:ful I was hoping that, as I went to the Le'.ation to begin ra:ge eo.5_ary walheec, someone from the crowd 'would rush up, embrace me and then c:_ee-cr.5.he their uree'atisfied d=sires to go walking but all I experienced was an In-,c)eFe euriosity, My feelings did not improve as I realised that the populiatiern hee't ne-er zen a walker before - literally never seen a walker - and hav i, scarcely net one person yet who recognised we as one. Me last sentence lea,-es, lene:, an olocning for a biting answer but:i refuse to a;_ter it, I hale one fzierd haxe - ex Sydney a few years - who had walked and who evinced the liveliest interest in my adventures and ambitions., Unfortunately he now suffered a grave disability which threatened to warp and repress his whole life and was 7erY sad indeed especially as he had endeavoured to interest his wife in walking, If no one recognised me as a walker, on the other hand, everyone thought I was a soldier - moectly AW.,LO - though they never imputed either-of these things to me when I was in the army. In time we discOvered that it was often most advantageous to be mistaken for the local soldiery-and now try to look as much like it as we dare. The average eye is not very critical and a lot of our walking has been done where many commandos are trained. Our hopes mostly tend towards Its but often we receive embarrassing sympathy (!) and praise. Having asked a small favour of one female shopkeeper I was treated to such an ebullient display of feeling that Iwas most apprehensive, On another trip, as we Wrn, unfortunatelY-speeding for a train, we were invited by :eng diete nce shuts to a con uf tea. We declined but the invitation was repeated with 1.,lee ver,7ri '77e 2d 1:_kf) you to have a cup of -eca with us'2. After raeirs siani l o, this oece!eien we finish,-)d with a quarter mile hard run for tiee last trair. E0 our ref esal can be understood but we did not turn down the two luscdot a pineapples offered us earlier in the day. was cast into :feerer gloom when I surveyed the train -oosition., Briefly it is this There ar2 :everal Main Tine6-from Brisbane and these :kive mary bran :a lfn- 2h iair. lines all pass thrOugh flat, coreparatively '1,trii1sDiring oct,4.-4 bet tile b rapch ]ines at least approach good walking distriCts of which tnre ee p-LeeLty wjthin reasonable dis-Lnce of Brisbane if you can only get to thee, ree alaim lines heve soele trains at suitable times but the o s - well, f7:-. ce?e point of 7-Lew they are tri,umphs of organisetion for it would ],e'e be peeeee)c) to them at more inc6nvenient times. I hope I havc!no co:.vt:-.-,1 a leetaton for statements of doubtful t'uth for then, when I come to eeeeA and aecomylocletien of the tiains in gene7.(17.. T s?eenTrd noe, oe be7ieviJ, Hexeer:. I em writing a+ lee-eh,e7 cur -0y-10= ',now vv- ti'pIs ep:_o dr:servg- Fci7).= ]”/.e 1 s'eali onl: ro ezreLaoir eur eueeess in the plural of ':eni, Viai, :F7'oeJ heci a little worried but one item which can be done without when Je feoel. to a certain..degree anyway. This problem was sc,-/ed pa-e7:. by earryLeg fresh fruit and vegetables but when the price of 'r,la:*T“ lettuces, for example, rose to one and threepence it made one think. However, I am now an acco=lished shoplDer with a nose for e3;. s, onions,-bacon, potato and an expanding repertoire if not an expanding girth. Near the weekend anyeLite watching me on my way to work would mote a zigzag cour se. like a destroys,raeciding bombs as I went from shop to &Thep trying-to obtain some comparati7e rajTi yD(137- one bad failure was my leavivg Completely unimpressed a rotduranteur when, in an endeavour to get some ricei I put over a lovr lysobstory comp3cte with a catch in the voice, Exp;rjeric.-1 has. taught me to:often include on the meiv “li7ing off the - ET fl (Hse,7..ud as “fruits nseasen”, This art is divided into i.7.0 methods - 1izsozul. and the tecInicall7 illegal but cuite eusable Br lgeen the “dcsez'i: a ne Car. sown” prol,ert=f_es ara quite ,commA. clo7 grate at couy,i: have been six dc4,xln'bananas one weekend -1/-,d =hLr'y two (3”e) apples between four of us another. At present wc can be a:moot sure to fid a laden orange tree sometime in the weekend and it is no- for us to 'rrinj home a dozen or twb oranges. s As T am on the bcd and breakfast stunt and breakfast concZ.sts of tea and toast ,I have all my meat coupons frr thvveke..eel buttc,I is tuken car') of by Kitty, It is not due to the ii tLt Ltty h t he sharod bei ween us but it does, I think, add to-oul4 cr9”cit t!-2a t, Kat-,;; telh kept in the refrigerator lequired. Kitty i6 our Suzplu3 Swply which is kept in the refriger9tor at the Medical Shool, Hcr neighb rs are germs, bacilli, streptococci ancl what-have-yous so I'hope thesc baeterio-gists snow their job. My jeremiad would not be complete without the mention of maps, I arrived here with only a toad Map which showed no prejudice whatever and did not hesitate to show mountains miles and miles from their true locations and even, I discovered, forgot one railway line, After -a time I tackled the miIitar authbrities for permission to purchase some maps and., much to my surt)rise, it was granied. Those.1 have been able to obtain re not nearly as de“tailed as military maps nor as accurate but they arc infinitely better than anything I previously had of Queensland or than none., Having written about “ien for some time I had better ciscribe how eventually the almost miraculous did happen on Annivers,ry We enda As I was standing in the queue wondering whether I should get a ticket in time to catch the train, OlD rushed two ch;lps with packs, T%ro-vin acid tr,c;itional British reserve I ventured to speab; to them without intrr)duction with the result that we joined force's in a trip to Burra anC,RiLL s, Beth hailed from Melbourne originally e nd onl- the f ct tht the car to Binna :3urra had broken:down-cus,id them to minute chne in their plans and goloy 1.7e have'h.P.dcilany m-rVelIcus-trins sinc, including some of the best in my life, but not once has any one of us seen (or even heard) another , ; , Brisbana is lacking, ocimpared-with Sydney, in short walks though there are still' plenty of these..-H0wever; within 100 miles of Brisbane there is magnificent country better, I am forced to admit:after due consideration, than Sydney can boast. The,mountein,peaks, after,being used to Plateau country, are overwhelming, One,limtting factor. is the jungle but now in the Tinter even this is losing its terror for-it is poesible to get through it but the Summer rains make the same task most unpleasant, find the wet Summer and the dry Winter a decided advantage thougL disconcerting at first. We are scarcely over the reconnaissance period yet so in timepI hope that several of the long' road walks we have had can, with greater knowledge of the country, be converted into genuine bush-walks or dashed over on some kind of power driven vehicle - it would not be advisable to be more specific. I shall conclude this article with list of soee of the places tc whch I have beenr hoping that I shall make green with envy both those w?eD Jenew the coeaer7 e-nd those to whom they are only vague names. Howevec, I heee _geed pheteereTh:ic evidence to support my claims as, in this branch alao, ee-operative elfert left us on only a few, occasions withlut films and we have suTvived many crises in veloping and printing. ror 11;f;t comj-…3re up these - Mt.Glorious, Binna Burra, O'Reilly's. The Ceae:e, feprieFereele, Glasshouse Mountains, D7Aig-,z1ar Par:;3e, ne,Lindesay, Reeeeey -eee, 61'i:eders Range, Lamington Plata e a-ed Chriotelas Creek. They have been sufiiciently wonderful to lighten the nostalgia of an exile. MINUT.S OF GEN,CRAL MKLTING OF THE SYDNT,Y BUSH WALKERS HELD AT 5 HAMILTU STRI.M SYDNEY at 7,55 p, ri, on Friday 16th Junb_1944. PRTZENT, About 30 members. Mr. Stead in the chair. President welcomes Roy Davies and congratulated him on beceming a new' members CORRESPONDENCE: Was read and received. LAZ PURA: Moved by Mrs. Moppett and seconded by Mr.Johnson that:“The Secretary write to Mr. Pura requesting him to rec,onsider his decision to resign from the Club. CARRYD. RE ERA: Moved by Mr.Duncan end seconded by Mr.Johnson thlt: “The Federation delegate of this club should brine before the next Council meeting of the Federation, the-Correspondence riceived from Miss '41.13yles, with a strong recommendation for the resumption of Era lends, and that the Garawara Extineion Trust Fund, together ith any further subscription from any other bodies or -public al-)T,Doal, should be utilised towards this end, :end that such subscrietion be open for any one month.CARRITLT. Moved by faes Garrad and seconded by Miss Payne-Scott that if such a subscription is opened by the Federation, the Clubs 100 be put 5..nto-this fund. CARRID. Mr. Roots moved an amendment to the effect that this donation by the Club should only be made provided that if ,nd when resumed the Era lands either be attached to Garawara Park Trust Fund or else form a nucleus of a new reserve. MOTION LOST. Moved by Mr,Duncan and seconded by Miss Garrad “If the Federation de e not desire to open such a fund, and if the Club still wi-ehes te subccribe its 1100, and if the majority of the contributing mewbers et11 wish it to be done', Miss Byles be asked to proceed-with the deputational CARRIED. Meeting closed at 9.2 p m. I THE LAST OF THE BUSH WALURS By Ray Bean, The seccnd world war was but a memory, The post war recone,tructinn had crammed ao much into the lives of the -people that happening:7 o: ten years ago were not remembered clearly, The experiences of several Life times were telescoped into one; such was the pace of living, The groat fifty seven years of peace prophesied by Nostradamus was nearly at an en6 People were living at an excessive rate to get as mueh pleae'ure RE rossible into the few remaining years of peace, Even now thEe:e :s ohvLos st r:: of unrest in Neo-slovaki:e where everyone knows the-re is a preponderance of Aryan stock, Frankly, Demecratic Socialism is on the 5J-CJThe year is an important one to Winstor. Gladstone for he has sul)eev'esPd the laying of more seamler2e, jointess, 731aiet:.o ,car:, ever achieved ir one year, and as we see him entering. his gravity ca.: 7ith hir fie,ncee and two friends to show them he ge eat Highway 371, we zr,e eomething of his achievement reflected in the pYoud eapeseiicn on his fees, Gripping the synthetic eteering wheel Winston sets ii:eto the direction of Highway 371 when he gets beyend tha cubu elJan limit. for Highway 371 is as straight'as … well, the shortest distance between two -,Doints, and he has no need to steer, such is the perfection cf the gravity car whose simple but efficient engine converts as much of the force of ,ravity required to propel it into horizontal force, As the streamlined, highly polished, ple stic sha-.?e of the car speeds along Winston turns a knob on the dash-board and they listen to an orchestra on the television radio -laying an atonal s7mnhony by th contemporary composer Mozhoven. Highway 371 has no intersections or branches, just a magnificent ribbon of road, right across the mountains to the Western plains and beyond; the ingenuity of Winston Gladstone, even though the mountains were crossed and cries-crossed by roads and dotted by aerodromes, On Scots Main Range the car came to a st,,ndstill and the quzIrtet carry a small picnic hamper into the shade of the trees, The meal break is an opportunity for Winston to tell his friends of the technical difficulties encountered and overcome in the building of Highway 371, and he is asked what was the most interesting encounter of the project, “Tell, said Winston, strangely enough it had no connection with engineering, but I have never met such an oddity in my life.” Ee settles himself into a more comfortable position and strikes an attitude of importance, for Winston loves an audience, and considers himself no mean teller of tales, “You have probably never heard of that strange sect, or cult, or something, known as Bush Walkers; they roamed these mountains yeirs ago carrying huge packs containing food and blankets, and lived under the trees at night and walked during the day,” You mean they just welked?” asked Winston's fiancee. “Yes, they just walked” said Winston, 6. “Gosh/” said his fiancee. “Down on a clearing on the Kowmung River I met a fellow who claimed he was the last of this cult, or sect… “Or something” said the Fiancee. “He was working a treadmill with his bare feet, carring. a huge pack on his back, and just gazing away into the distmce as though he didn't know whrt was there”. “Did you talk to him”? asked th'?. other man. “Yes, I spoke to him, but he did not hear; at least he did not answer my question; he just looked ahead and kept muttering, no place to walk any more, no place to walk”. I made a few enquiries from small farmers in the district and they told me the story of the Bush Walkers.” “When he is not hike-bappy he talks of the way these people walked the mountains years ago, and how hd survived them all.” “Gosh”, said the fiancee, “fancy walking.” This is finished, an idle tale of fantasy. It's oddity lies not so much in the flight of fancy, but in the thought that it could be true. THE KOSCIUKO STATE PARK By “Silvanius” (1) A brief sketch of the area itself. The area covered by the park is situated between Yass and the Victorian Border, it comprises the mountainous catchments of the Viurray, Snowy, DarrumbiOsee and Tumut Rivers. For the most part the country is extremely steep aDthough some relatively level areas occur on the to-s of the plateaux. The country surrounding Kiandra is one such area. All the high country is covered with snow in the winter, und it is one of the feu snowfall are;s in New South Wales. On account of th: ark: tha f,ist,nce from eith,:r Sydney or Nelbourne the area is practically uninhabited and it is quite unsuitable for farming. The bulk of the area ir covered with forests; on the'more or less level top these forests have been destroyed by repeated burning and their place has been taken by grasc. Some 140,000 acres are State Forests dedicated under the 1916 Forestry Act, These-State Forests were selaCted-on account of the fact that they contain crimmercially valuable timbers. One of them contains 1452 acres of pine plantation established by the Forestry Commission since 1924 at a total cost of approximately E25,000. (2) Past History of the area. On account of the steepness and remoteness the land was not sought after - by settlers, consequently it has remained Crown Lands up to the present time wwwlNowar when nearly all the land in the State valuable fOr grazing, agriculture or other uses has been taken up by individuals or dedicated to appropriate purposes. The land is actually residual Crown Lands of :very low value, but cOnfainin:8 - areas of use during dry years for summer grazing. D Up to the present the Lands Department has made the land available to the Public for Summer Grazing under a system of Snow Leases and Periissive Occupancies. This system has given the public just and equitable use of the 5land in accordance with the spirit of the-Crown Lends Consolidation Act, Whilst giving the public the use of the land, the Lands Department has done nothing towards conserving or developing the natural resources of the area and has, in particular, done nothing to stop the bush fires which practically every year sweep through the mountains, The results of these repeated bush fires are seen in the remnants of what were once splendid forests, now reduced to scrub bracken and bare earth, In the high plateaux the scrub and trees have been destroyed, swamps have dried up, moss has been destroyed and the banks of streams, once covered with moss and vegetation, have been reduced to sandy beaches. Failure to control these fires has been due no doubt partly to apathetic public opinion plus governmental failure to realise the final result of a slow process of degradation. The main cause-, however, lies in the fact that the area has a very low economic value, and, while the expen-;it.-xe necessary for this work is very great, the execution of the work coulc: h,ve but an extremely low priority in relation to the work of the State as a whole. (3) Its natural resources. Many years ago the N.6,7. Government built tha Burrinjuck Dam and the water:is now used both for irrigation and the ganaration of electricity. The Murray.RiVer. Commirsion has built the Hume Weir and uses the water for irrigation. Provision has also been kade to use it for the generation of electricity. The Water Conservation and Irrigation Commission is making a very thorough survey of suitable dam sites on the Tumut River, and it seems certain that a large dam will be built there very soon after the war in order to supplement the Burrinjuck Dam. Many schemes have been advanced,for utilising the water of the Snowy River for irrigation, for supply to Sydney and for hydro-electric power. Before very long the waters of this river must be utilised for one or all of these purposes. Parts of the area have proved their suitability for the growth of exotic conifers which are so badly needed to build up our depleted forest resources. Some 1350 acres of country on Jounama State Forest have already been 1?1anted with nines which are now up to 20 years old. Parts of the area are suitable for the summer grazing of stock, thereby, relieving the strain on the western grazing lands whilst at the same time increasing their carrying caipacity. With scientific management, pasture improvement and strict control, the usefulness of the area in this direction could be increased. Parts of the area contain forests of L.lpine Ash which is one of our most valuable Eucalyptus, much sought after for joinery, the manufacture of joinery, handles, boat oars and furniture, as well as general building timber. The area contains the best, and almost the only, snow country where Winter sports can be practised. This aspect has already been developed at Kosciusko, and is capable of much greater development. There is much rugged mountainous country where the bush walker can find his Primitive Area made primitive and perforce kept primitLve by the forces of nature, so long as it is not devastated by buth fires. The streams are the natural hoae of trout and provide some of the best fishing in the State. The reaoteness of th-:, area makes it a natural sanctuary for birds and animals as well as a preserve for native flora. The whole of it can form a vast ;Ilayground wherein every lover of the outdoors can find his heart's desire in the way of recreation: (4) Liamt_aalaasarliktRalX2_90Pserion ioolicZ is required. Here then lies a huge area waiting, not to be exploited, but to be conserved ad developed. We require a large conservation policy and a plan which will embrace, not only the present, but the future. A plan of conservation and development which will take account of all the varied assets presented by this almost unique mountain region. (5) The conservation and develgpment plan - Execution. The execution of this plan calls for the services of a strong team of technical men: Foresters, soil conservationalists, agrostologists, land administrators, organisers of public recreation etc. who will vigorously conserve and develop this area and make it serve its mUtiple purposes, and obtain from it the maximum use for the wide variety(drpeople who need it, andfor its own native fauna and flora. Under a Ministry of Conservation, combining Water Cmnservation, Forestry, Soil Conservation and Agriculture - this could be done and a vsst mountainous region converted - not into a State Park merely, by n3me but into a living bequest for future generations. The present Act contains the gem of the idea but the vision is too narrow; the tu21 potentialities of the idea have been insuffici?nt/y realised; the practical difficulties associated with the work are not und,3rstood; the means provided for attaining the ideal are entirely inadequate. The ,result will be a park on paper but a fire-devastated wilderness on the ground. , If, II., I I, L t/
k 14? f:D cs fir 7 r )-e SEEN AND HEARD Friday, June 23rd was Photographic Exhibition night and as is usual on these occasions Bushwalkers rolled up and visitors dropped in. No “inc;idants” occurred. Rival exhibitors controlled their feelings su-perbl,.. As the best Social columns say, Me noticed”, Alex Colley dour, fro Carlon:a huddled in a corner food-listing, and Dot English was in Much ,1=1.pping when the President announced that it was Taro's sixty larCk).[. Grace Edeecombe and John Noble very much in evV,3nce 0.th we a27t.-s thought a Bride was completely occupied on the wed3in: ,.vet c:i i rdr by china and clones, Eest Man and 4cidesmaid Malcolm IYI.Gcr and Elsa Isaacs also in attendance for the evening. The we:lding was on Saturday 24th at Roseville. A shcwer tea was given to Grace a few evenings before and nice presPnt;,7 Llick awful verses were presented to her, In fact super was withhelct till the vorses were produced, and we now have a fair ideaof what starving in a garret means. The Nobles have gnne off neatly and tidily, no straggling, Betty has announced her enisagment to Ron Baker, this is confirming congratulations offered by all in the Club. The “Herald” says that Mr, and Mrs. Gordon Pritchard have a son. Congratulaticns. We didn't sea “Monthly Magazines please copy”9 but hoe we are doing the right thing. So far we haven't heard much about how King's Birthday Holiday was spent but super optimists have plans for Eight hour Day well under way, Have you seen Flo Allsworth's legs? Recently, I mean. Well you should: while there's some skin left on them. No she didn't get these wods bushwalking as you earnest Bushwalkers might hope. She eAlhieved tn-r1 renewing her acquaintance with a bicycle. Flo is a well known :ity round all the suburbs now, Police are watching her tail light. Az- ftle loses her voice so frequently an extra loud bell has ben inalled. In the future there will be very few Hostels (hope they th;,2.t print this as Hotels, Mr.Stead) which her bike has not leanA against. Wo do wonder how the Navy is getting along for a spot of deck scrubbing now Doris is laid low with Dengue Fever, We are all very glad to hear that she is now convalescing. FRUIT HOW TO DRY API-LES - let Method. Feel the apples and core them right through, then cut into rings with a stainless knife. To prevent the rings becoming a bad colour, they must be subjected to sulphur fumes, Take se/eral large clean jars and invert one at a time over , burning sulnhur candle. As soon es the fleene does down, turn the jar quickly, slip a saucer over the top to Tr-8e) tlee sulphur fumes in Put the ap:le rings in the jars as quiclely as poseible, covering at once. Allo,q to remain 15 minutes, shake loccesion311y, so thot the fumes reach all surfaces, thie elread on trays and dry in a cool oven 4 or 5 hours, nerhies longer. They should be tough an no juice left in thems, Cover with muslin to protect from duet and leave in a warm, dry place for 24 hours. Pack in boxes lined with greaseproof paper. An alternative method after the sulphur treatment isto thread the rings on wire and stretch this in the sun, Don't let the rings touch. APPLES - and Methode Core and thinly peel the apples, then cut imto rings just under 4'e1? thick. As you cut the rings, drop them into cold salt water mixed in the proportion of 1 tablespoon salt to 6.1Ants of water, Then thread the aeeple rings on to tamboo -canes cut to the same length as your sliding oven shelves. If ydu. have no bamboo rods, the rings can be threaded on to tape or strong string. Put the aleple rings into the oven at a low heat - about 120F. Wedge the sticks across the oven, letting them rest on the grooves that the shelves rest on in the ordinary way. If they're on a tape or string, hang them,from the bars of a shelf, Let the temperature of the oven be gradually raised to about 200F, when the outside of the apnles begin to shrivel. Turn the rings at intervals an examine them from time to time. They should not get hard' outside, but should become leathery and bendable. Some apple rings may be dried sufficiently in about 4 hours - it depends on their thickness. But to test if they are ready, cut one across the thickest part and squeeze the cut ends. If any moisture at all is noticeable, the fruit must be left in the oven a little longer and tested again. When the fruit is suffici,ntly dried, take the cans from the oven and put them in a room of even te ;Deraturel et ndin the ends of the rods on raised blocks so that the fruit (.2osn't touch the table. Spread a piece of muslin oven the fruit to ,Irotct tt from dust, and leave it there for 24 hours to cool off Test the fruit again for moisture at the end of this time, if th3re is any suggestion of it, put the fruit back in the oven for a final drying off. The method of storing is important, P-ck away the rings in any kind of box, jar or tin, but make sure they are kept in a place that is cool and perfectly dry. Don't put them on a top shelf in the kitchen .1M111..1. c: 7ant17, because the-temioerature..varies nearer the ceilingi :10-ier put them in a deep cupboarc4_,
, Cc)?e and peel the pears, and dut them into ei,1.1r halveF or cl,tart,-)rs, a7GocOLng to the size of the fruit. Drop them into ? EA.t B-)JutiOn in %1.c '.-dano way as apples as you cut them0 Ii the pelrs are a juicy they are be:,t dried when sli ,htly under-ri)a. When fully prel)ared, ne -Dears should be t9Ren out of the salt an arralled in layr on u rck, l h rack placed Lf. thc r:von at the s.-me teiaernture as for a-) 1.:?,,s, Whcpn the outsides of t:e peab84n to shrivel, raise 'the temrierature grad ually until it ri3aches 200 F The pers may take 1277) to 8 hours to dry, but they shoula also become leathery in texture, but not brittle. Remove the racks from the oven at the end of the time2 and cool and test them in the same way as apple rings. They are also stored,in the same way PLUMS AND DZ1MSONS. If plums and damsons are to be dried they should be picked before they ar?e fully ripe. Remove all stalks and leaves and pot the fruit D.r o a large pan. LLrge plums hhould be halved and the stones removed. C–,.or with boiling water and leave for about 15 minutes with the lid on. strain and arrange on trays like pears, The method of drying T:1-3 and damrons in the oven9 and of packing and storing them is then exactly the same ao for al-Tles and pears. soet1461 When any drir)d fruits are needed for use, they should be 9f,tisih-d cwIrnight, or fo at least 8 hours - and then cnoked in the soaking water. If sugar 1_8 neededadd this when the fruit is cc)oked, Jhe n I fl. like exercirdng, 1 jut lie own until the faelin, goec, 2au1 Thrry - mal;:or of a.L-im-ltd c,rtr)ons,